One Hundred Fifty Years of Change in Forest Bird Breeding Habitat: Estimates of Species Distributions

Evaluating bird population trends requires baseline data. In North America the earliest population data available are those from the late 1960s. Forest conditions in the northern Great Lake states (U.S.A.), however, have undergone succession since the region was originally cut over around the turn of the twentieth century, and it is expected that bird populations have undergone concomitant change. We propose pre-Euro- American settlement as an alternative baseline for assessing changes in bird populations. We evaluated the amount, quality, and distribution of breeding bird habitat during the mid-1800s and early 1990s for three forest birds: the Pine Warbler ( Dendroica pinus), Blackburnian Warbler ( D. fusca), and Black-throated Green Warbler ( D. virens). We constructed models of bird and habitat relationships based on literature review and regional data sets of bird abundance and applied these models to widely available vegetation data. Original public-land survey records represented historical habitat conditions, and a combination of forest inventory and national land-cover data represented current conditions. We assessed model robustness by comparing current habitat distribution to actual breeding bird locations from the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. The model showed little change in the overall amount of Pine Warbler habitat, whereas both the Blackburnian Warber and the Black-throated Green Warbler have experienced substantial habitat losses. For the species we examined, habitat quality has degraded since presettlement and the spatial distribution of habitat shifted among ecoregions, with range expansion accompanying forest incursion into previously open habitats or the replacement of native forests with pine plantations. Sources of habitat loss and degradation include loss of conifers and loss of large trees. Using widely available data sources in a habitat suitability model framework, our method provides a long-term analysis of change in bird habitat and a presettlement baseline for assessing current conservation priority.

File: Schulte-et-al.-2005-ConsBiology.pdf

Satellite image texture captures vegetation heterogeneity and explains patterns of bird richness

Addressing global declines in biodiversity requires accurate assessments of key environmental attributes determining patterns of species diversity. Spatial heterogeneity of vegetation strongly affects species diversity patterns, and measures of vegetation structure derived from lidar and satellite image texture analysis correlate well with species richness. Our goal here was to gain a better understanding of why image texture explains bird richness, by linking field-based measures of vegetation structure directly with both image texture and bird richness. In addition, we asked how image texture compares with lidar-based canopy height variability, and how sensor resolution affects the explanatory power of image texture. We generated texture metrics from 30 m (Landsat 8) and 10 m (Sentinel-2) resolution Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery from 2017 to 2019. We compared textures with vegetation metrics and bird richness data from 27 National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) terrestrial field sites across the continental US. Both 30 and 10 m resolution texture metrics were strongly correlated with lidar-based canopy height variability (|r| = 0.64 and 0.80, respectively). Texture was moderately correlated with field-based metrics, including variability of vegetation height and tree stem diameter, and foliage height diversity (range |r| = 0.31–0.52). Generally, 10 m resolution texture had stronger correlations with lidar and field-based metrics than 30 m resolution texture. In univariate linear models of total bird richness, 10 m resolution texture metrics also had higher explanatory power (up to R2adj = 0.45), than 30 m texture metrics (up to R2adj = 0.31). Among all metrics evaluated, the 10 m homogeneity texture was the best univariate predictor of total bird richness. In multivariate bird richness models that combined texture with lidarbased canopy height variability and field-based metrics, both 30 m and 10 m resolution texture metrics were selected in top-ranked models and independently contributed explanatory power (up to R2adj = 46%). Lidarbased canopy height variability was also selected in a top-ranked model of total bird richness, but independently contributed only 15% of the variance explained. Our results show satellite image texture characterized multiple features of structural and compositional vegetation heterogeneity, complemented more commonly used metrics in models of bird richness and for some guilds outperformed both lidar-based canopy height variability and field-based vegetation measurements. Ours is the first study to directly link image texture both to specific components of vegetation heterogeneity and to bird richness across multiple ecoregions and spatial resolutions, thereby shedding light on habitat features underlying the strong correlation between image texture and biodiversity.

File: 1-s2.0-S0034425720305484-main.pdf

Kirtland’s Warbler breeding productivity and habitat use in red pine-dominated habitat in Wisconsin, USA

During the breeding season, Kirtland’s Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii) are strongly associated with young jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in northern Lower Michigan, USA. Since 2007, the species has been breeding in unusual habitat, red pine (Pinus resinosa) dominated plantations, in central Wisconsin, USA. Kirtland’s Warbler productivity and habitat use in red pine is not well understood, and the central Wisconsin population is at a range edge, a situation often associated with lower productivity. To compare range-edge and range-core populations, we estimated reproductive success and characterized habitat use of Kirtland’s Warblers in central Wisconsin red pine-dominated plantations during 2015–2017 using logistic regression models. We also monitored nests and fledgling success, and estimated nest survival using logistic exposure models. Trees were closer together and herbaceous vegetation was taller and denser within territories than at randomly located points outside of territories. Females selected nest sites with deeper dead ground vegetation and live vegetation that was taller and denser than was available at randomly located points within male territories. Nest success was not strongly influenced by within-patch habitat factors. Nest daily survival rate was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.94–0.98). The average number of young fledged per nest was between 2.5 and 2.8. Nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) was 22.7%. Overall, reproductive success in the peripheral central Wisconsin breeding population of Kirtland’s Warblers that used red pine-dominated plantations was similar to that of Kirtland’s Warblers breeding in typical jack pine habitat in the range core. Young red pine-dominated habitat appears to approximate young jack pine in habitat quality for Kirtland’s Warblers, and this may provide managers some flexibility in habitat maintenance for this conservation-reliant species.

File: ACE-ECO-2021-2009.pdf

Effect of forest logging on food availability, suitable nesting habitat, nest density and spatial pattern of a Neotropical parrot

Secondary cavity nesters, bird species that rely on the presence of existing cavities, are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic and stochastic processes that reduce the availability of cavity bearing trees. The most common logging practice in Neotropical forests is selective logging, where a few valuable tree species are logged, primarily old, large trees that are the most prone to develop cavities and produce larger amounts of fruits and seeds. Tucuman Amazon, Amazona tucumana, is a threatened parrot that relies on the tree-cavities and food provided by large, old trees. Our objective was to evaluate how logging affects 1) stand and nest plot forest structure, 2) nesting site selection, 3) food availability, 4) density of suitable cavities, 5) nest density, and 6) nest spatial pattern of Tucuman Amazon by comparing a mature undisturbed forest in a National Park (NP) vs a logged forest (LF). We determined the availability of suitable cavities and food resources consumed by Tucuman Amazon, and we compared nest density and spatial pattern of nests between NP vs LF. The Index of food availability for all tree species consumed by Tucuman Amazon and for P. parlatorei were significantly higher in NP than in LF (34.5 ±13.3 m ha− 1 vs. 3.5 ± 1.0 m ha− 1 and 5.6 ± 2.3 m ha− 1 vs. 1.2 ± 1.0 m ha− 1, respectively). Density of suitable cavities for nesting in the NP was significantly higher than in the LF: 4.6 cavities ha− 1 [C.I. 95 %: 3.07 – 7.04 cavities ha− 1] vs. 1.1 cavities ha− 1 [C.I. 95 %: 0.73 – 1.66 cavities ha− 1], respectively. Mean density of Tucuman Amazon nests was significantly higher in the NP than in LF (0.25 ± 0.04 vs. 0.06 ± 0.04 nest ha− 1, respectively). Food availability is an important factor that affects Tucuman Amazon populations and when food is not limiting, the availability of suitable cavities and territorial behavior could play a role in regulating nest density. When evaluating the limiting factors for secondary cavity-nesting species of conservation concern it is important to evaluate the interplay of a set of potential limiting factors to propose sound forest management recommendations.

File: Rivera-et-al-2022_Effect-of-logging-on-Tucumon-Amazon.pdf

Effects of bird species-level environmental preference on landscape-level richness-heterogeneity relationships

The niche-based argument that species are filtered from environments in which they cannot sustain viable populations is the basis of the Richness-Heterogeneity Relationship (RHR). However, the multi-dimensionality of niches suggests that the RHR may take different shapes along different environmental axes, with potential confounding effects if filtering along the axes is not equally strong. Here, we explore how different structural and landscape variables drive the RHR as the accumulative outcome of environmental preferences at the species-level while considering the intercorrelation between heterogeneity levels along three niche axes. We used occurrence data of avifauna from 226 sites situated along a grassland-to-woodland gradient in a Midwestern USA study area. In each site, we quantified horizontal (habitat cover type), vertical (vegetation height structure), and spatial (habitat configuration) heterogeneity and explored the shape of the observed RHR at the landscape scale, as well as the correlations among heterogeneity levels at different axes. We then fitted species distribution models to environmental variables from the three axes separately and compared the stacked probabilities of occurrences of all species to the observed species richness. We found that predictions of richness patterns improved when more than one heterogeneity axis was included in RHR models, and that habitat suitability along different axes is not equally strong. Furthermore, a unimodal RHR along the vegetation height axis, which the species distribution models revealed to be a weak predictor for most species, may arise through intercorrelation with heterogeneity along the two other axes, along which we recorded stronger signals of environmental preference at the species level. Our results emphasize the importance of selecting relevant niche axes in studies of species richness patterns because ultimately, these patterns reflect the various environmental preferences of individual species.

File: Gavish-et-al_2021_Effects-of-bird-species-level-environmental-preferences-on-landscape-level-richness-heterogeneity-relationships.-Basic-and-Applied-Ecology-56-1-13..pdf

Assessing the effectiveness of a forest Habitat Conservation Plan for a threatened seabird, the Marbled Murrelet

Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) commonly facilitate habitat conservation on private land in the United States, yet the effectiveness of individual HCPs is rarely evaluated. Here, we assess the effectiveness of a high-profile HCP created by a lumber company to protect old-growth forests used for breeding by Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) on private land. We used 17 years of HCP-monitoring data to compare trends in murrelet occupancy and inland counts between private HCP areas and public reference areas over time. Based on occupancy models applied to audio-visual survey data, average occupancy was higher in public reference areas (0.85; 85% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.79–0.90) than in private HCP areas (0.46; 85% CI: 0.38–0.54). Numerically, trends in occupancy were slightly positive in public areas ( = 1.01; 85% CI: 0.94–1.08) and slightly negative in private areas ( = 0.97; 85% CI: 0.87–1.06), but CI did not preclude stable occupancy on both ownerships. Based on generalized linear mixed models applied to inland radar survey data, murrelet counts in private HCP areas (least-squares [LS] mean = 8.7; 85% CI: 6.2–12.2) were lower than those in public reference areas (LS mean = 14.8; 85% CI: 10.1–21.7), but CI overlapped. Murrelet counts declined by 12–17% annually on both ownerships over the study period based on the top model, but a closely competing interactive model suggested more rapid declines in public reference (14–20%) than in private HCP (10–15%) areas. Both models indicated that murrelet counts were negatively related to sea surface temperature, suggesting that warm ocean conditions negatively affect murrelet breeding effort. Collectively, these results suggest that while HCP habitat may be lower quality than public reference areas, the HCP has likely not exacerbated ongoing declines of murrelets in the region. This work highlights the importance of including reference areas when evaluating conservation policies.

File: Brunk-et-al-2021_Effectiveness-of-HCP-for-Marbled-Murrelet.pdf

Patterns of bird species richness explained by annual variation in remotely sensed Dynamic Habitat Indices

Bird species richness is highly dependent on the amount of energy available in an ecosystem, with more available
energy supporting higher species richness. A good indicator for available energy is Gross Primary Productivity
(GPP), which can be estimated from satellite data.
Our question was how temporal dynamics in GPP affect bird species richness. Specifically, we evaluated the
potential of the Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs) derived from MODIS GPP data together with environmental and
climatic variables to explain annual patterns in bird richness across the conterminous United States. By focusing
on annual DHIs, we expand on previous applications of multi-year composite DHIs, and could evaluate lag-effects
between changes in GPP and species richness.
We used 8-day GPP data from 2003 to 2013 to calculate annual DHIs, which capture three aspects of vegetation
productivity: (1) annual cumulative productivity, (2) annual minimum productivity, and (3) annual
seasonality expressed as the coefficient of variation in productivity. For each year from 2003 to 2013, we
calculated total bird species richness and richness within six functional guilds, based on North American
Breeding Bird Survey data.
The DHIs alone explained up to 53% of the variation in annual bird richness within the different guilds
(adjusted deviance-squared D2adj = 0.20–0.52), and up to 75% of the variation (D2adj = 0.28–0.75) when
combined with other environmental and climatic variables. Annual DHIs had the highest explanatory power for
habitat-based guilds, such as grassland (D2adj = 0.67) and woodland breeding species (D2adj = 0.75). We found
some inter-annual variability in the explanatory power of annual DHIs, with a difference of 5–7 percentage
points in explained variation among years in DHI-only models, and 3–7 points for models combining DHI,
environmental and climatic variables. Our results using lagged year models did not deviate substantially from
same-year annual models.
We demonstrate the relevance of annual DHIs for biodiversity science, as effective predictors of temporal
variation in species richness patterns. We suggest that the use of annual DHIs can improve conservation planning,
by conveying the range of patterns of biodiversity response to global changes, over time.

File: Hobi-et-al-2021_BirdSpeciesRichness_DynamicHabIndices_EcolIndicators.pdf

Reducing anthropogenic subsidies can curb density of overabundant predators in protected areas

Protected areas safeguard biodiversity and provide opportunities for human recreation. However, abundant anthropogenic food subsidies associated with human activities in protected areas can lead to high densities of generalist predators, posing a threat to rare species at broad spatial scales. Reducing anthropogenic subsidies could curb populations of overabundant predators, yet the effectiveness of this strategy is unclear. We characterized changes in the foraging ecology, body condition, and demography of a generalist predator, the Steller’s jay, three years after implementation of a multi-faceted management program to reduce anthropogenic subsidies in a protected area in California. Stable isotope analysis revealed that the proportional contribution of anthropogenic foods to jay diets declined from 88% to 47% in response to management. Overlap between jay home ranges decreased after management began, while home range size, body condition, and individual fecundity remained stable. Adult density in subsidized areas decreased markedly from 4.33 (SE: ±0.91) to 0.65 (±0.20) jays/ha after the initiation of management, whereas density in unsubsidized areas that were not expected to be affected by management remained stable (0.70 ± 0.22 pre-management, 0.58 ± 0.38 post-management). Thus, the response of jays to management was density-dependent such that reduced densities facilitated the maintenance of individual body condition and fecundity. Importantly, though, jay population size and collective reproductive output declined substantially. Our study provides evidence that limiting anthropogenic subsidies can successfully reduce generalist predator populations and be part of a strategy to increase compatibility of species protection and human recreation within protected areas.

File: Brunk-et-al-2021_Reducing-anthropogenic-subsidies_Stellers-Jays_Biological-Conservation.pdf

Flying insect abundance in northern Wisconsin depends on lakes, vegetation, and time of the summer

Mayfly emergence resulted in an increase in flying insect abundance in late June and early July.

Considering their outsized importance as prey for so many species one would assume that patterns of insect abundance and their determinants have been well-studied. On the contrary, insect ecology is poorly understood and documented. Our study sought to gain an understanding of the subgroup of insects that fly, with a particular emphasis on groups that spend part of their life in lakes and streams.

Insect trapping took place in the northern highland lake district. The study area consists of northern mixed forest with one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
Insect trapping took place in the northern highland lake district. The study area consists of northern mixed forest with one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.

We conducted insect trapping over three years in the forest landscape of northern Wisconsin, near UW-Madison’s Trout Lake Research Station. We trapped insects May-August around five different lakes and identified them in the lab.

Mean insect abundance varied over the course of the summer with peak average insect abundance occurring in late May and early June (Julian Day 145-155) in both years.
Mean insect abundance varied over the course of the summer with peak average insect abundance occurring in late May and early June (Julian Day 145-155) in both years.

There were several patterns that stood out. Flying insects tended to be many times more abundant in nearshore areas compared to interior forests. Different groups of insects showed different patterns. Diptera, including deerflies, midges, and gnats were the most abundant insects overall. As expected, emergent aquatic groups such as midges, mayflies, and dragonflies were more abundant in nearshore areas while beetles and thrips were more abundant in forest interiors. There were also multiple peaks of abundance through the season with large emergence events of midges and mayflies driving much of the pattern. In addition, local canopy cover was negatively correlated with insect abundance.

We observed birds, bats, and fish consuming flying insects. Abundance of these insect predators likely tracks the abundance of their insect prey. In addition, insects perform other ecosystems services such as pollination and nutrient cycling. Understanding the patterns and drivers of insect abundance can help us better understand northern Wisconsin forest ecosystems.

Contrasting seasonal patterns of relative temperature and thermal heterogeneity and their influence on breeding and winter bird richness patterns across the conterminous United States

Environmental heterogeneity enhances species richness by creating niches and providing refugia. Spatial variation in climate has a particularly strong positive correlation with richness, but is often indirectly inferred from proxy variables, such as elevation and related topographic heterogeneity indices, or derived from interpolated coarsegrain weather station data. Our aim was to develop new remotely sensed metrics of relative temperature and thermal heterogeneity, compare them with proxy measures, and evaluate their performance in predicting species richness patterns. We analyzed Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor data, calculated two thermal metrics during summer and winter, and compared their seasonal spatial patterns with those of elevation and topographic heterogeneity. We fit generalized least squares models to evaluate each variable’s effect in predicting seasonal bird richness using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Generally speaking, neither elevation nor topographic heterogeneity were good proxies for temperature or thermal heterogeneity, respectively. Relative temperature had a non-linear relationship with elevation that was negatively quadratic in summer, but slightly positively quadratic in winter. Topographic heterogeneity had a stronger positive relationship with thermal heterogeneity in winter than in summer. The magnitude and direction of elevation–temperature and topographic heterogeneity–thermal heterogeneity relationships in each season also varied substantially across ecoregions. Remotely sensed metrics of relative temperature and thermal heterogeneity improved the predictive performance of species richness models, and both thermal variables had significant effects on bird richness that were independent of elevation and topographic heterogeneity. Thermal heterogeneity was positively related to total breeding bird richness, migrant breeding bird richness and resident bird richness, whereas topographic heterogeneity was negatively related to total breeding richness and unrelated to migrant or resident bird richness. Because thermal and topographic heterogeneity had contrasting seasonal patterns and effects on richness, they must be carefully contextualized when guiding conservation priorities.

File: ecog.05520.pdf