University of Wisconsin–Madison
Spatial Analysis For Conservation and Sustainability

Modeling a cross-ecosystem subsidy: forest songbird response to emergent aquatic insects

Download Schilke et al_2020_Landscape Ecology_Modeling a cross-system subsidy

Context: Resource movements across ecosystem
boundaries are important determinants of the diversity
and abundance of organisms in the donor and recipient
ecosystem. However the effects of cross-ecosystem
movements of materials at broader spatial extents than
a typical field study are not well understood.
Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that (1) variation
in abundance of 57 forest songbird species within
four foraging guilds is explained by modeled emergent
aquatic insect biomass inputs from adjacent lakes and
streams and (2) the degree of association varies across
foraging guilds and species within guilds. We also
sought to determine the importance of emergent
aquatic insects while accounting for variation in local
forest cover and edge.
Methods: We spatially modeled the degree to which
distribution and abundance of songbirds in different
foraging guilds was explained by modeled emergent
aquatic insect biomass. We used multilevel models to
simultaneously estimate the responses of species in
four different insectivorous guilds. Bird abundance
was summarized from point counts conducted over
24 years at 317 points.
Results: Aerial insectivores were more abundant in
areas with high estimated emergent insect biomass
inputs to land (regression coefficient 0.30, P\0.05)
but the overall abundance of gleaners, bark-probers,
and ground-foragers was not explained by estimated
emergent insect abundance. The coursing aerial
insectivores had the strongest association with emergent
insects followed by willow flycatcher, olive-sided
flycatcher, and alder flycatcher.
Conclusions: Modeling cross-ecosystem movements
of materials at broad spatial extents can effectively
characterize the importance of this ecological process
for aerial insectivorous songbirds.