Bird species richness is highly dependent on the amount of energy available in an ecosystem, with more available
energy supporting higher species richness. A good indicator for available energy is Gross Primary Productivity
(GPP), which can be estimated from satellite data.
Our question was how temporal dynamics in GPP affect bird species richness. Specifically, we evaluated the
potential of the Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs) derived from MODIS GPP data together with environmental and
climatic variables to explain annual patterns in bird richness across the conterminous United States. By focusing
on annual DHIs, we expand on previous applications of multi-year composite DHIs, and could evaluate lag-effects
between changes in GPP and species richness.
We used 8-day GPP data from 2003 to 2013 to calculate annual DHIs, which capture three aspects of vegetation
productivity: (1) annual cumulative productivity, (2) annual minimum productivity, and (3) annual
seasonality expressed as the coefficient of variation in productivity. For each year from 2003 to 2013, we
calculated total bird species richness and richness within six functional guilds, based on North American
Breeding Bird Survey data.
The DHIs alone explained up to 53% of the variation in annual bird richness within the different guilds
(adjusted deviance-squared D2adj = 0.20–0.52), and up to 75% of the variation (D2adj = 0.28–0.75) when
combined with other environmental and climatic variables. Annual DHIs had the highest explanatory power for
habitat-based guilds, such as grassland (D2adj = 0.67) and woodland breeding species (D2adj = 0.75). We found
some inter-annual variability in the explanatory power of annual DHIs, with a difference of 5–7 percentage
points in explained variation among years in DHI-only models, and 3–7 points for models combining DHI,
environmental and climatic variables. Our results using lagged year models did not deviate substantially from
same-year annual models.
We demonstrate the relevance of annual DHIs for biodiversity science, as effective predictors of temporal
variation in species richness patterns. We suggest that the use of annual DHIs can improve conservation planning,
by conveying the range of patterns of biodiversity response to global changes, over time.
Bird species richness is highly dependent on the amount of energy available in an ecosystem, with more available
Protected areas safeguard biodiversity and provide opportunities for human recreation. However, abundant anthropogenic food subsidies associated with human activities in protected areas can lead to high densities of generalist predators, posing a threat to rare species at broad spatial scales. Reducing anthropogenic subsidies could curb populations of overabundant predators, yet the effectiveness of this strategy is unclear. We characterized changes in the foraging ecology, body condition, and demography of a generalist predator, the Steller’s jay, three years after implementation of a multi-faceted management program to reduce anthropogenic subsidies in a protected area in California. Stable isotope analysis revealed that the proportional contribution of anthropogenic foods to jay diets declined from 88% to 47% in response to management. Overlap between jay home ranges decreased after management began, while home range size, body condition, and individual fecundity remained stable. Adult density in subsidized areas decreased markedly from 4.33 (SE: ±0.91) to 0.65 (±0.20) jays/ha after the initiation of management, whereas density in unsubsidized areas that were not expected to be affected by management remained stable (0.70 ± 0.22 pre-management, 0.58 ± 0.38 post-management). Thus, the response of jays to management was density-dependent such that reduced densities facilitated the maintenance of individual body condition and fecundity. Importantly, though, jay population size and collective reproductive output declined substantially. Our study provides evidence that limiting anthropogenic subsidies can successfully reduce generalist predator populations and be part of a strategy to increase compatibility of species protection and human recreation within protected areas.File: Brunk-et-al-2021_Reducing-anthropogenic-subsidies_Stellers-Jays_Biological-Conservation.pdf
Considering their outsized importance as prey for so many species one would assume that patterns of insect abundance and their determinants have been well-studied. On the contrary, insect ecology is poorly understood and documented. Our study sought to gain an understanding of the subgroup of insects that fly, with a particular emphasis on groups that spend part of their life in lakes and streams.
We conducted insect trapping over three years in the forest landscape of northern Wisconsin, near UW-Madison’s Trout Lake Research Station. We trapped insects May-August around five different lakes and identified them in the lab.
There were several patterns that stood out. Flying insects tended to be many times more abundant in nearshore areas compared to interior forests. Different groups of insects showed different patterns. Diptera, including deerflies, midges, and gnats were the most abundant insects overall. As expected, emergent aquatic groups such as midges, mayflies, and dragonflies were more abundant in nearshore areas while beetles and thrips were more abundant in forest interiors. There were also multiple peaks of abundance through the season with large emergence events of midges and mayflies driving much of the pattern. In addition, local canopy cover was negatively correlated with insect abundance.
We observed birds, bats, and fish consuming flying insects. Abundance of these insect predators likely tracks the abundance of their insect prey. In addition, insects perform other ecosystems services such as pollination and nutrient cycling. Understanding the patterns and drivers of insect abundance can help us better understand northern Wisconsin forest ecosystems.
Environmental heterogeneity enhances species richness by creating niches and providing refugia. Spatial variation in climate has a particularly strong positive correlation with richness, but is often indirectly inferred from proxy variables, such as elevation and related topographic heterogeneity indices, or derived from interpolated coarsegrain weather station data. Our aim was to develop new remotely sensed metrics of relative temperature and thermal heterogeneity, compare them with proxy measures, and evaluate their performance in predicting species richness patterns. We analyzed Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor data, calculated two thermal metrics during summer and winter, and compared their seasonal spatial patterns with those of elevation and topographic heterogeneity. We fit generalized least squares models to evaluate each variable’s effect in predicting seasonal bird richness using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey. Generally speaking, neither elevation nor topographic heterogeneity were good proxies for temperature or thermal heterogeneity, respectively. Relative temperature had a non-linear relationship with elevation that was negatively quadratic in summer, but slightly positively quadratic in winter. Topographic heterogeneity had a stronger positive relationship with thermal heterogeneity in winter than in summer. The magnitude and direction of elevation–temperature and topographic heterogeneity–thermal heterogeneity relationships in each season also varied substantially across ecoregions. Remotely sensed metrics of relative temperature and thermal heterogeneity improved the predictive performance of species richness models, and both thermal variables had significant effects on bird richness that were independent of elevation and topographic heterogeneity. Thermal heterogeneity was positively related to total breeding bird richness, migrant breeding bird richness and resident bird richness, whereas topographic heterogeneity was negatively related to total breeding richness and unrelated to migrant or resident bird richness. Because thermal and topographic heterogeneity had contrasting seasonal patterns and effects on richness, they must be carefully contextualized when guiding conservation priorities.File: ecog.05520.pdf
Grassland birds have exhibited dramatic and widespread declines since the mid-20th century. Greater prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) are considered an umbrella species for grassland conservation and are frequent targets of management, but their responses to land use and management can be quite variable. We used data collected during 2007–2009 and 2014–2015 to investigate effects of land use and grassland management practices on habitat selection and survival rates of greater prairie chickens in central Wisconsin, USA. We examined habitat, nest-site, and brood-rearing site selection by hens and modeled effects of land cover and management on survival rates of hens, nests, and broods. Prairie chickens consistently selected grassland over other cover types, but selection or avoidance of management practices varied among life-history stages. Hen, nest, and brood survival rates were influenced by different land cover types and management practices. At the landscape scale, hens selected areas where brush and trees had been removed during the previous year, which increased hen survival. Hens selected nest sites in hay fields and brood-rearing sites in burned areas, but prescribed fire had a negative influence on hen survival. Brood survival rates were positively associated with grazing and were highest when home ranges contained ≈15%–20% shrub/tree cover. The effects of landscape composition on nest survival were ambiguous. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of evaluating responses to management efforts across a range of life-history stages and suggest that a variety of management practices are likely necessary to provide structurally heterogeneous, high-quality habitat for greater prairie chickens. Brush and tree removal, grazing, hay cultivation, and prescribed fire may be especially beneficial for prairie chickens in central Wisconsin, but trade-offs among life-history stages and the timing of management practices must be considered carefully.File: ece3.6805.pdf
The seasonal dynamics of snow cover strongly affect ecosystem processes and winter habitat, making them an important driver of terrestrial biodiversity patterns. Snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra satellites can capture these dynamics over large spatiotemporal scales, allowing for the development of indices with specific application in ecological research and predicting biodiversity. Here, our primary objective was to derive winter habitat indices (WHIs) from MODIS that quantify snow season length, snow cover variability, and the prevalence of frozen ground without snow as a proxy for subnivium conditions. We calculated the WHIs for the full snow year (Aug-Jul) and winter months (Dec-Feb) across the contiguous US from 2003/04 to 2017/18 and validated them with ground-based data from 797 meteorological stations. To demonstrate the potential of the WHIs for biodiversity assessments, we modeled their relationships with winter bird species richness derived from eBird observations. The WHIs had clear spatial patterns reflecting both altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in snow cover. Snow season length was generally longer at higher latitudes and elevations, while snow cover variability and frozen ground without snow were highest across low elevations of the mid latitudes. Variability in the WHIs was largely driven by elevation in the West and by latitude in the East. Snow season length and frozen ground without snow were most accurately mapped, and had correlations with station data across all years of 0.91 and 0.85, respectively. Snow cover variability was accurately mapped for winter (r = 0.79), but not for the full snow year (r = 0.21). The model containing all three WHIs used to predict winter bird species richness patterns across the contiguous US was by far the best, demonstrating the individual value of each index. Regions with longer snow seasons generally supported fewer species. Species richness increased steadily up to moderate levels of snow cover variability and frozen ground without snow, after which it steeply declined. Our results show that the MODIS WHIs accurately characterized unique gradients of snow cover dynamics and provided important information on winter habitat conditions for birds, highlighting their potential for ecological research and conservation planning.File: GudexCross_etal_2021_MODIS_WHIs_BirdDiversity.pdf
Addressing global declines in biodiversity requires accurate assessments of key environmental attributes determining patterns of species diversity. Spatial heterogeneity of vegetation strongly affects species diversity patterns, and measures of vegetation structure derived from lidar and satellite image texture analysis correlate well with species richness. Our goal here was to gain a better understanding of why image texture explains bird richness, by linking field-based measures of vegetation structure directly with both image texture and bird richness. In addition, we asked how image texture compares with lidar-based canopy height variability, and how sensor resolution affects the explanatory power of image texture. We generated texture metrics from 30 m (Landsat 8) and 10 m (Sentinel-2) resolution Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery from 2017 to 2019. We compared textures with vegetation metrics and bird richness data from 27 National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) terrestrial field sites across the continental US. Both 30 and 10 m resolution texture metrics were strongly correlated with lidar-based canopy height variability (|r| = 0.64 and 0.80, respectively). Texture was moderately correlated with field-based metrics, including variability of vegetation height and tree stem diameter, and foliage height diversity (range |r| = 0.31–0.52). Generally, 10 m resolution texture had stronger correlations with lidar and field-based metrics than 30 m resolution texture. In univariate linear models of total bird richness, 10 m resolution texture metrics also had higher explanatory power (up to R2adj = 0.45), than 30 m texture metrics (up to R2adj = 0.31). Among all metrics evaluated, the 10 m homogeneity texture was the best univariate predictor of total bird richness. In multivariate bird richness models that combined texture with lidar-based canopy height variability and field-based metrics, both 30 m and 10 m resolution texture metrics were selected in top-ranked models and independently contributed explanatory power (up to R2adj = 46%). Lidar-based canopy height variability was also selected in a top-ranked model of total bird richness, but independently contributed only 15% of the variance explained. Our results show satellite image texture characterized multiple features of structural and compositional vegetation heterogeneity, complemented more commonly used metrics in models of bird richness and for some guilds outperformed both lidar-based canopy height variability and field-based vegetation measurements. Ours is the first study to directly link image texture both to specific components of vegetation heterogeneity and to bird richness across multiple ecoregions and spatial resolutions, thereby shedding light on habitat features underlying the strong correlation between image texture and biodiversity.File: Farwell-et-al-2021_Sat-image-texture_veg_birds_RemSensEnv.pdf
Species loss is occurring globally at unprecedented rates, and effective conservation planning requires an understanding of landscape characteristics that determine biodiversity patterns. Habitat heterogeneity is an important determinant of species diversity, but is difficult to measure across large areas using field-based methods that are costly and logistically challenging. Satellite image texture analysis offers a cost-effective alternative for quantifying habitat heterogeneity across broad spatial scales. We tested the ability of texture measures derived from 30-m resolution Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to capture habitat heterogeneity and predict bird species richness across the conterminous United States. We used Landsat 8 satellite imagery from 2013–2017 to derive a suite of texture measures characterizing vegetation heterogeneity. Individual texture measures explained up to 21% of the variance in bird richness patterns in North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data during the same time period. Texture measures were positively related to total breeding bird richness, but this relationship varied among forest, grassland, and shrubland habitat specialists. Multiple texture measures combined with mean EVI explained up to 41% of the variance in total bird richness, and models including EVI-based texture measures explained up to 10% more variance than those that included only EVI. Models that also incorporated topographic and land cover metrics further improved predictive performance, explaining up to 51% of the variance in total bird richness. A texture measure contributed predictive power and characterized landscape features that EVI and forest cover alone could not, even though the latter two were overall more important variables. Our results highlight the potential of texture measures for mapping habitat heterogeneity and species richness patterns across broad spatial extents, especially when used in conjunction with vegetation indices or land cover data. By generating 30-m resolution texture maps and modeling bird richness at a near-continental scale, we expand on previous applications of image texture measures for modeling biodiversity that were either limited in spatial extent or based on coarse-resolution imagery. Incorporating texture measures into broad-scale biodiversity models may advance our understanding of mechanisms underlying species richness patterns and improve predictions of species responses to rapid global change.File: Farwell-eta-l-2020_Habitat-heterogeneity-30-m-and-birds_Ecological-Applications.pdf
Context: Resource movements across ecosystem
boundaries are important determinants of the diversity
and abundance of organisms in the donor and recipient
ecosystem. However the effects of cross-ecosystem
movements of materials at broader spatial extents than
a typical field study are not well understood.
Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that (1) variation
in abundance of 57 forest songbird species within
four foraging guilds is explained by modeled emergent
aquatic insect biomass inputs from adjacent lakes and
streams and (2) the degree of association varies across
foraging guilds and species within guilds. We also
sought to determine the importance of emergent
aquatic insects while accounting for variation in local
forest cover and edge.
Methods: We spatially modeled the degree to which
distribution and abundance of songbirds in different
foraging guilds was explained by modeled emergent
aquatic insect biomass. We used multilevel models to
simultaneously estimate the responses of species in
four different insectivorous guilds. Bird abundance
was summarized from point counts conducted over
24 years at 317 points.
Results: Aerial insectivores were more abundant in
areas with high estimated emergent insect biomass
inputs to land (regression coefficient 0.30, P\0.05)
but the overall abundance of gleaners, bark-probers,
and ground-foragers was not explained by estimated
emergent insect abundance. The coursing aerial
insectivores had the strongest association with emergent
insects followed by willow flycatcher, olive-sided
flycatcher, and alder flycatcher.
Conclusions: Modeling cross-ecosystem movements
of materials at broad spatial extents can effectively
characterize the importance of this ecological process
for aerial insectivorous songbirds.
Climate change is altering patterns of resource availability and this may have negative effects on insectivorous forest birds in the US upper Midwest. As invertebrate life cycle phenology shifts due to earlier spring leaf-out, nesting birds are vulnerable to phenological mismatches between food supply and demand. Areas with complex topography, and thus a variety of thermal and humidity conditions, may support a greater variety of plant and invertebrate phenological rates and stages within close proximity than are found in areas with simple topography. However, the extent and magnitude of this phenomenon is unclear, as is the degree to which topographic position may influence the ability of species to persist during extreme conditions. We examined the effects of topographic position on the
phenology of a tri-trophic forest system over two years from spring through mid-summer. We hypothesized that in cool microsites the likelihood of trophic mismatches and late season food shortages is lower than in warm microsites. At 70 sites in the Baraboo Hills, part of the Driftless Area of the US Midwest, we recorded leaf-out timing of over 700 deciduous trees, measured weekly changes in invertebrate biomass on understory foliage, and conducted bird point counts to assess avian species richness and density. In stream gorges, cooler temperatures were associated with slight but significant delays in leaf-out timing of canopy and understory deciduous trees relative to upland sites. At all sites, invertebrate biomass was distributed relatively evenly across the study period, in contrast to other temperate zone sites where phenological mismatches have been reported between birds and their invertebrate prey. Invertebrate
biomass was similar in stream gorges and uplands in both study years. Insectivorous bird species richness was greater in stream gorges than in the surrounding upland forest during both seasons and was positively related to Lepidoptera larvae biomass in the understory. Among eight abundant insectivorous bird species, density was similar in uplands and stream gorges, among four species density was higher in uplands, and density of two species was higher in stream gorges. These results suggest that insectivorous birds within this study area are unlikely to experience trophic mismatches, and that despite having cooler microclimates and higher avian species richness, stream gorges did not provide more invertebrate food resources than uplands under the climate conditions of the years in which we
sampled this tri-trophic system.