OVERALL SPECIES RICHNESS

Spatial Resolution:
500m 2500m 5000m

Spatial Resolution:

LAYER OPACITY

LEGEND

Number of species

0-20

20-40

40-60

60-80

80+

### DOWNLOADS

Group | Variable | Description | Resolutions | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Biodiversity Predictors | Cloudiness Index | Landsat 8-based cloudiness index. To calculate a standardized cumulative cloud count, or Cloudiness Index, we took the sum of cloudy pixels across our image stack and divided this by the total number of available images. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Cumulative DHI | Cumulative Dynamic Habitat Indices from Landsat-8 2013 to 2020. This metric is created by summing up all monthly median NDVI values. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Minimum DHI | Minimum Dynamic Habitat Indices from Landsat-8 2013 to 2020. This metric is created by selecting the minimum NDVI. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Variation DHI | Variation Dynamic Habitat Indices from Landsat-8 2013 to 2020. This metric is created by calculating the coefficient of variation of NDVI. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Median Greenness EVI | Mean Greenness Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) based on composite image of median EVI values between May and August (2013-2019) as a representative measure of vegetation greenness during the growing season. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Peak Greenness EVI | Peak Greenness Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) based on 90th percentile greenness values across our image stack between May and August (2013-2019). | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Housing density | The block-level housing density from the 2010 housing dataset, resampled from (http://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/data/housing-block- change/). | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Contrast | All texture metrics are based on the cumulative DHI. This is a second order texture metric, based on a 17×17 moving window. For specific information on texture visit https://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/webmaps/landsat8-evi- textures/ | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Correlation | All texture metrics are based on the cumulative DHI. This is a second order texture metric, based on a 17×17 moving window. For specific information on texture visit https://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/webmaps/landsat8-evi- textures/ | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Dissimilarity | All texture metrics are based on the cumulative DHI. This is a second order texture metric, based on a 17×17 moving window. For specific information on texture visit https://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/webmaps/landsat8-evi- textures/ | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Entropy | 500m | 2500m | 5000m | |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Mean | All texture metrics are based on the cumulative DHI. This is a first order texture metric, based on a 17×17 moving window. For specific information on texture visit https://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/webmaps/landsat8-evi- textures/ | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Standard Deviation | All texture metrics are based on the cumulative DHI. This is a first order texture metric, based on a 17×17 moving window. For specific information on texture visit https://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/webmaps/landsat8-evi- textures/ | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Uniformity | 500m | 2500m | 5000m | |

Biodiversity Predictors | Texture Variance | All texture metrics are based on the cumulative DHI. This is a first order texture metric, based on a 17×17 moving window. For specific information on texture visit https://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/webmaps/landsat8-evi- textures/ | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Summer Relative Temperature | Metric based on data from Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), from 2014 to 2020. Summer (June to August) relative temperature is derived by assigning the mean value within a moving window to the central pixel, and then taking the median value of those means across the image stack. Based on 17×17 moving window. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Summer Thermal Heterogeneity | Metric based on data from Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), from 2014 to 2020. Summer (June to August) thermal heterogeneity is derived by assigning the standard deviation value within a moving window to the central pixel, and then taking the median value of those standard deviations across the image stack. Based on 17×17 moving window. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Temperature Amplitude | Metric based on data from Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), from 2014 to 2020. To evaluate the potential effects of the magnitude of seasonal differences in temperature on birds, we calculated a measure of temperature amplitude by taking the difference between median summer and winter relative temperatures. Based on 17×17 moving window. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Winter Relative Temperature | Metric based on data from Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), from 2014 to 2020. Winter (December to February) relative temperature is derived by assigning the mean value within a moving window to the central pixel, and then taking the median value of those means across the image stack. Based on 17×17 moving window. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Winter Thermal Heterogeneity | Metric based on data from Landsat 8’s Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), from 2014 to 2020. Winter (December to February) thermal heterogeneity is derived by assigning the standard deviation value within a moving window to the central pixel, and then taking the median value of those standard deviations across the image stack. Based on 17×17 moving window. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Frozen Ground (no snow) | WHIs are based on temporally harmonized Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 data (30 m). This metric represents frequency of frozen ground without snow days (requires additional data for frozen ground status from PRISM). It is calculated for the core winter months only (Dec- Feb), derived from 8-day composites of snow observations, and captures freeze/thaw dynamics and approximate subnivean conditions to varying degrees. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Snow Cover Variability | WHIs are based on temporally harmonized Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 data (30 m). This metric represents It is calculated for the core winter months only (Dec- Feb), derived from 8-day composites of snow observations, and captures freeze/thaw dynamics and approximate subnivean conditions to varying degrees. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Biodiversity Predictors | Snow Season Length | WHIs are based on temporally harmonized Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 data (30 m). This metric represents snow season length. Snow season length is comparable to overall winter length, indicates how long birds are exposed to winter conditions, and is calculated by taking the difference between the first and last snow dates. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Large Ranged Species | Range size was determined by taking the median of all BBS species’ ranges and designating ranges below the median as small-ranged and those above the median as large-ranged. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Threatened Species | The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species was used when defining threatened species. This includes higher classifications. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Small Ranged Species | Range size was determined by taking the median of all BBS species’ ranges and designating ranges below the median as small-ranged and those above the median as large-ranged. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Shrubland Specialists | We based affiliate and specialist statuses on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Habitats Classification Scheme (Version 3.1). Habitat specialist species were defined as those with only one habitat of major importance, while affiliates had two or more during the breeding season. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Shrubland Affiliates | We based affiliate and specialist statuses on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Habitats Classification Scheme (Version 3.1). Habitat specialist species were defined as those with only one habitat of major importance, while affiliates had two or more during the breeding season. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Short Distance Migrants | Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) designations were used for migration strategy classifications. Short-distance migrants as migratory birds wintering primarily in the United States and Canada and long-distance birds as neotropical migrants. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Resident Species | Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) designations were used for migration strategy classifications. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Overall Species Richness | This includes all species found in the conterminous US, with both guild and BBS data available. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Mid-story and Canopy Nesting Species | Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) designations were used for nesting strategy classifications. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Long Distance Migrants | Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) designations were used for migration strategy classifications. Short-distance migrants as migratory birds wintering primarily in the United States and Canada and long-distance birds as neotropical migrants. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Insectivores | Foraging type class was based on the Elton Traits database. Insectivores are insect eating species. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Granivores | Foraging type class was based on the Elton Traits database. Granivores included seed and nut eating species. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Grassland Specialists | We based affiliate and specialist statuses on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Habitats Classification Scheme (Version 3.1). Habitat specialist species were defined as those with only one habitat of major importance, while affiliates had two or more during the breeding season. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Ground Nesting Species | Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) designations were used for nesting strategy classifications. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Grassland Affiliates | 500m | 2500m | 5000m | |

Guild Maps | Forest Affiliates | 500m | 2500m | 5000m | |

Guild Maps | Forest Specialists | 500m | 2500m | 5000m | |

Guild Maps | Species with Increasing and Stable Populations | Population trends are from BirdLife International. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Species with Decreasing Populations | Population trends are from BirdLife International. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Guild Maps | Frugivores | Foraging type class was based on the Elton Traits database. Frugivores were considered fruit and nectar- eating species. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Large Ranged Species | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Large Ranged Species. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Threatened Species | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Threatened Species. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Small Ranged Species | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Small Ranged Species. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Shrubland Specialists | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Shrubland Specialists. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Shrubland Affiliates. Random forest predictions are generated by | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Intervals for Shrubland Affiliates | subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Short Distance Migrants | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Short Distance Migrants. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Resident Species | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Resident Species. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Overall Species Richness | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Overall Species Richness. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Mid-story and Canopy Nesting Species | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Mid-story and Canopy Nesting Species. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Long Distance Migrants | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Long Distance Migrants. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Insectivores | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Insectivores. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Granivores | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Granivores. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Grassland Specialists | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Grassland Specialists. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Ground Nesting Species | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Ground Nesting Species. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Grassland Affiliates | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Grassland Affiliates. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Forest Affiliates | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Forest Affiliates. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Forest Specialists. Random forest predictions are generated by | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Prediction Intervals for Forest Specialists | subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Species with Increasing and Stable Populations | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Species with Increasing and Stable Populations. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Species with Decreasing Populations | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Species with Decreasing Populations. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Prediction Intervals | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Frugivores | Random Forest Prediction Intervals for Frugivores. Random forest predictions are generated by subtracting the smallest value predicted by a single tree from the largest value for each location. | 500m | 2500m | 5000m |

Comparisons | all_spp | All species | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | decreasing | Decreasing | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | forest_aff | Forest affiliates | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | forest_spec | Forest speciliasts | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | frugivore | Frugivores | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | granivore | Granivores | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | grass_aff | Grass affiliates | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | grass_spec | Grass specialists | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | groundnest | Ground Nesters | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | insectivore | Insectivores | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | large_range | Large range | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | longDist_migrant | Long distance migrants | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | midstory_canopy_nest | Midstory canopy nesters | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | residents | Residents | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | shortDist_migrants | Short distance migrants | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | shrub_aff | Shrub affiliates | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | shrub_spec | Shrub Specialists | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | small_range | Small range | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | stable_increasing | Increasing | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |

Comparisons | threatened | Threatened | 2500m vs 500m | 5000m vs 2500m | 5000m vs 500m |